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350                                   XTYM010GY OF LOCAL
Krishna was nurtured by the herdsman Nanda.   Baval, a village in the same
neighbourhood, the reputed home of Badha's maternal grandfather Surbh&o,
may be identical in meaning ; or it may even represent an original Eadha-
knla, in which case it wonld be curious as affording the earliest authority for
BMha's local existence and pre-eminent rank.   Koila, again, is evidently not
the bird called in Sanskrit JK&ila and in Hindi Koil; for who wonld dream
of calling a place simply Cuckoo without any affix such as in the possible com-
pound Cuckoo-town ? Neither is it the exclamation Koi Id, uttered by Vasn-
deva as he was bearing the infant Krishna across the Jamuna; for whatever
the language then in vogue, it certainly was not modern Hindi: nor again,
and for a similar reason3 does the word Koila mean 'charcoal/ with a reference
to the ashes of the witch Putana> washed across the stream from the town of
Gokol.    But it may be taken for granted that the final consonant stands for
rd and has the possessive force of that particle, while the former member of
the compound is either Koi, * the water-lily/ or Kol> for Krora, (a wild boar.'
The extensive morass in the neighbourhood, well known to sportsmen as the
Koila jhil, renders either derivation probable and appropriate.   If the fact
were not now placed on record, a few more years and the philologists who
look for the origin of Indian names in every language, saving only the vernacu-
lar of the comntryy would seize the opportunity of declaring Koila to be merely
a mispronunciation of the English <quail.*    Similarly, it may reasonably be
conjectured that Kukar-gama is not so called because a BanjaVa in his travels
happened to bury beside the village pond a favourite dog (htkar), though the
slab supposed to cover the dog's grave is still shown; but rather, as the village
Is certainly of ancient date and was colonized by Thakurs from Chitor, it is
probable that its name commemorates the otherwise unknown founder, since ,
Kukura occurs in the MaMbharat as the proper name of a king, and may
therefore have been at one time in common use.   To pass yet more rapidly
over a few other Illustrations of the same rule, that apparent identity is equi-
valent to real difference: Kamar does not commemorate Krishna's gift of a
blanket (kamal) to fee shivering hermit Durvasas, but rather implies a migra-
tion from the older town of Kama ; < Ainch' does not refer to the ' sketching*
of Krishna's tent-ropes, -through the real derivation is doubtful; < J&f is not
£he imperative verb f go/ but a corruption of yrf»a, ' lac;' Mama, now altered
by office eopyists to Bhama, has no relation to the * death' of one of Krishna's
enemies *, and ' Jait* is not simply an abbreviation for jafav, but (as shown by
ft® filkg© pronunciation Jaint) represents an original Jayaatu, which occurs
in Sanskrit as ill© same both of a river and a coimtry.